User Manual for RISe — the Risk Illustrator for SELENA

Dominik H. Lang and Fredrik Lingvall
NORSAR

June 18, 2010

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Contents

1 Introduction and Background
 1.1 The Seismic Loss Assessment Software SELENA
 1.2 Illustration of SELENA Files with RISe
2 Copyright
 2.1 Disclaimer
3 Technical Description of RISe
 3.1 Basic Features
 3.2 Illustration Types
4 Working with RISe
 4.1 Download, Installation, and System Requirements
  4.1.1 Windows
  4.1.2 POSIX Systems (Linux/UNIX)
 4.2 Preparatory Works
  4.2.1 Demarcation of the Atudy Area in Google Earth
  4.2.2 Definition of the Single Geographical Units (Census Tracts)
  4.2.3 Definition of the Center Points of Each Geographical Unit (Centroids)
 4.3 Preparation of Input Files
 4.4 Illustration of Input Files
 4.5 Illustration of Output Files
 4.6 Exporting the Maps
5 Error Messages
Bibliography
A Compiling the C# Code
 A.1 Tools and Libraries for Windows
 A.2 Building on Windows
 A.3 Tools and Libraries for Linux/Unix
 A.4 Building on Linux/Unix (POSIX) systems

1 Introduction and Background

THE open source software tool RISe, which is described herein, is a tool for illustration of the SELENA risk and loss results in Google Earth. The motivation for devloping RISe is that since the entire software package SELENA is free (open source with a GPL license) it is a desirable to also provide the user with a possibility to illustrate the risk and loss results, which were derived with SELENA, using a free GIS. In addition to a large variety of commercial Geographic Information Systems (e.g., ArcGIS, ArcView, MapInfo etc.) a number of open-GIS programs are also available (e.g., GRASS GIS, ILWIS, GMT). Even though all of the latter group are powerful tools it is believed that Google Earth is the most prevailing GIS even providing satellite images of almost every built environment in the world. This lead to the decision to develop the software tool RISe in order to allow an illustration of the SELENA risk and loss results in Google Earth.

1.1 The Seismic Loss Assessment Software SELENA

Since the year 2004, the International Centre of Geohazards (ICG), through NORSAR (Norway) and the University of Alicante (Spain), has developed the open-source software tool for seismic risk and loss assessment SELENA [1, 2]. SELENA, the acronym for Seismic Loss Estimation by using a Logic Tree Approach, is a free open source software for computing the seismic risk (i.e., physical damages to the built environment) and the connected losses (i.e., economic and human losses) by using the capacity-spectrum method [3, 4]. Earlier a very powerful seismic risk assessment software was developed by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) for the Federal Emergency Management Agency [5] which served as the basic prototype for the first version of SELENA. The code of this software called HAZUS (abbreviation for Hazards United States) was embedded into the ArcGIS software (ESRI, Inc.) and thereby integrated with the national and regional databases on building stock and demography of the United States. Even though the methodology behind the HAZUS approach represents the state-of-the-art in seismic risk and loss assessment, the fact that it is tailored so intimately to U.S. situations makes it very difficult to be applied to other environments or geographical regions. On this account, SELENA is open for any user-defined data and thus can be applied to any part of the world. In addition, it is not connected to any particular GIS allowing the user to apply the software of his preference.

1.2 Illustration of SELENA Files with RISe

This user manual basically describes the stand-alone tool RISe which was developed in order to allow an easy conversion of the geo-referenced SELENA input and output files into Google Earth kml-files. In addition, the current version of RISe facilitates an easier generation of input files for SELENA.

2 Copyright

THE RISe program is an open source software and the source code for the program is freely redistributable under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) as published by the Free Software Foundation (http://www.gnu.org). See also the file COPYING which is distributed with the RISe program.

The RISe program can be downloaded at: http://selena.sourceforge.net. At this website you can also find information how to contact the authors and report bugs etc.

2.1 Disclaimer

The RISe program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. More specifically:

THE PROGRAM IS PROVIDED “AS-IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL ANY OF THE AUTHORS OF THE SELENA PROGRAM AND/OR NORSAR, NORWAY, UNIVERSIDAD DE ALICANTE, SPAIN, BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, OR DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS, WHETHER OR NOT THE AUTHORS OF THE SELENA PROGRAM HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, AND/OR ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

3 Technical Description of RISe

IN this section the main features of RISe is discussed.

3.1 Basic Features

The current version of RISe disposes of three different main features which will be called by the user before, during and after the SELENA risk computation:

Before
Preparing input (i.e., the preparation of the SELENA input files soilcenteri.txt based on the single geographical units which were demarcated in Google Earth)
During
Input Illustrator (i.e., the conversion of geo-referenced SELENA input files into Google Earth files)
After
Output Illustrator (i.e., the conversion of geo-referenced SELENA output files into Google Earth files)

Figure 1 illustrates the main menu of RISe with the three main features on the left toolbar.


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Figure 1: Main menu of RISe with the main toolbar on the left margin.

However, before one of these features can be used some preparation works have to be conducted in Google Earth which basically are:

3.2 Illustration Types

RISe comprises of different illustration types, i.e. the way the SELENA files are transformed into a map. Since especially damage results are somehow difficult to be plotted on a single color-shaded map, alternative illustration types such as bar chart plots are included which, e.g. allow the depiction of damage results for five different damage states. Figure 2 gives an overview of the three mapping types which consist basically of colorshaded plots, normalized bar chart plots, and absolute bar chart plots. In addition, the locations of earthquake epicenters required for the deterministic analysis are illustrated as single Placemarks in Google Earth.


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(a) Color-shaded plot: For each geographical unit, one information (e.g., soil class, ground motion value, share of building area etc.) is plotted.
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(b) Normalized bar chart plot: Plot type in order to illustrate the shares of damage probabilities (douti.txt) in the five different damage states for one particular model building type. The heights of the column are identical and represent 100 % of cumulative damage probability.

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(c) Absolute bar chart plot Type 1: Plot type in order to illustrate absolute damage extent in the five different damage states. The heights of the columns are different and represent the amount of damage in the respective geographical unit.
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(d) Absolute bar chart plot Type 2: Plot type in order to illustrate absolute values of economic loss or numbers of casualties. The heights of the columns are different and represent the mean value ± standard deviation of loss in the respective geographical unit.

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(e) Absolute bar chart plot Type 3: Plot type in order to illustrate absolute numbers of inhabitants. The heights of the columns are different and represent the number of total population in the respective geographical unit.
Figure 2: Examples of illustration types for the kml-maps.

4 Working with RISe

IN this section the details for intalling and running RISe is treated, both for Windows stystems and POSIX (Linux/Unix) systems.

4.1 Download, Installation, and System Requirements

Parallel to the seismic risk assessment software package SELENA, the latest version of RISe can be ound at the SELENA/RISe web page: http://selena.sourceforge.net.

Download the the zipped intsall file for RISe which contains the main folderRISe_x.x.x (where x.x.x is the particular version of RISe that you just have downloded). The main folder includes:

4.1.1 Windows

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Note: The folder Selena_Estilos ???? has (FIXME) to copied into a folder on the local hard disk called C:/RISe.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

RISe will run on most common Windows systems, such as, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, Windows XP, and Windows 7. Furthermore, RISe requires the Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5 since it runs under this framework runtime. Usually, the Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5 is automatically installed with the regular windows update. In order to do a fresh install of the Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5 then follow the steps below:

  1. Verify that the .NET Framework 3.5 is not installed: path: Windows Control Panel Add or Remove Programs and verify that the software is not on the list (see Figure 3).
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    Figure 3: An example of the Windows Add or Remove Programs list.

  2. Download the .NET Framework from the Microsoft website and follow the installation instructions. In case that a .NET Framework version lower than 2.0 is installed, problems will occur when trying to open RISe (see also Section 4).

4.1.2 POSIX Systems (Linux/UNIX)

To run RISe under Linux (POSIX systems) you need to install the cross platform, open source .NET development framework, mono. This can most likely be done using the package manager for the particular Linux distribution in use (on, for example, Gentoo this is done with $ emerge mono). Otherwise, mono can be found at: http://www.mono-project.com.

After installing mono then start RISe by typing:

 $ mono RISe.exe

4.2 Preparatory Works

As stated earlier, a number of preparatory works independent of RISe have to be conducted by the user which establish the main basis for the illustration of input, inventory and output files.

4.2.1 Demarcation of the Atudy Area in Google Earth

The first step of any risk assessment study basically consists in the coarse demarcation of the considered study area which then serves as the main basis for the study to be conducted. Here, Google Earth provides a suitable tool since the satellite images of the developed city regions are in most cases available in high resolution quality.

4.2.2 Definition of the Single Geographical Units (Census Tracts)

SELENA as most other risk estimation software tools considers the minimum geographical unit (GEOUNIT), i.e. the census tract, as the smallest area unit. In practice, this unit is related to building blocks or smaller city districts. The decision on the size or the extent of a geographical unit has to be made considering different aspects such as having equal soil conditions, comparable surface topography or a homogeneous level of building quality within the demarcated area.

In this respect Google Earth can be also utilized during the planning phase in order to make the decision on how to divide the study area into the single geographical units. The single steps on how to demarcate and label the single geographical units (GEOUNITS) are given as follows:

  1. Open the respective study area in Google Earth (GE) and zoom to a sufficient zoom level such that the boundaries of the single GEOUNITS can be clearly identified.
  2. Use the GE Add Polygon tool in order to label and demarcate the single GEOUNITS:
  3. Move all polygons of the study area into a separate folder and save the folder as PolyTract.kml (see Figure 5, left toolbar). This file will be the basis for all (color-) shaded kml-plots which will be generated by the Input and Output Illustrator.

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(a)
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(b)

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(c)
Figure 4: Necessary changes of the polygons which are used to demarcate the geographical units in Google Earth (subfolders of the Add Polygon tool).


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Figure 5: Demarcation of the single geographical units of an urban study area.

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Note: In case that you have missed to use the same color for all polygons or to allocate a certain altitude to some polygons, the Share Style option can be used when opening the properties of the file PolyTract.kml (see Figure 6).__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


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Figure 6: Using the Share Style option when opening the properties of file PolyTract.kml allows a simultaneous change of the properties of all polygons included in the file at once.

4.2.3 Definition of the Center Points of Each Geographical Unit (Centroids)

After the geographical units are demarcated and labeled their respective center points have to be defined since these establish the column anchor points of the bar chart plots:

  1. Use the GE Add Placemark tool in order to assign the center points of the single GEOUNITS:
  2. Move all placemarks of the study area into a separate folder and save the folder as CentroidTract.kml (see Figure 7, left toolbar). This file will be the basis for all barchart kml-plots which will be generated by the Input and Output Illustrator.

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Figure 7: Labeling of the center points for each geographical unit (subfolder of the Add Placemark tool).


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Figure 8: Demarcation of the single geographical units of an urban study area.

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Note: In case that you have missed to use the same color or type of icon for all placemarks, the Share Style option can be used when opening the properties of the file CentroidTract.kml (compare with Figure 6).__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Note: In case that the centroids or polygons describing the geographical units are available in GIS file format, e.g. Shape-file (shp), an easy conversion of these file formats into the Google Earth file format kml can be conducted. A number of conversion tools are freely available on the web, such as Shp2KmlConverter.exe which can be downloaded from http://www.reimers.dk._____________________________________________________________________

4.3 Preparation of Input Files

The RISe-function Preparing Input (Figure 9) especially is of interest for the user if the SELENA soilcenteri.txt files are not already prepared. This function essentially imports the CentroidTract.kml-file and provides a table with the GEOUNIT ID’s, the geographical coordinates of their center points, and a blank field for the soil class IDs:


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Figure 9: Preparing input function in order to generate the SELENA input file soilcenteri.txt.

%GEOUNIT LATITUDE LONGITUDE SOIL_ID  
0100100001 59.91401 10.71870 2  
0100100002 59.91562 10.71144 2  
01001...

in which:

GEOUNIT
label for the identification of the geographical unit
LATITUDE
label for the geographical coordinates (degree of latitude)
LONGITUDE
label for the geographical coordinates (degree of longitude)
SOIL_ID
label for the for the soil type in each geographical unit

Based on the applied soil classification scheme for the SELENA risk study (compare with Tables 12 and 3), the user can interactively assign the codes for the soil classes to the single geographical units. After adding the soil class IDs completely filled table can then be saved in ASCII-file format (soilcenteri.txt) and directly used as input file for the SELENA computation.










Site
site class description
shear-wave velocity
class vs,30 [m/s]








A Hard rock, eastern U.S. sites only > 1500




B Rock 760–1500




C Very dense soil and soft rock 360–760




D Stiff soil 180–360




E Soft soil, profile with > 3 m of soft clay defined as soil
with plasticity index PI > 20, moisture content w > 40% < 180




F Soils requiring site-specific evaluations









Table 1: “NEHRP” site classification [5] as applied by IBC-2006 [6].










Code
Ground type
Site class description
Shear-wave velocity
vs,30 [m/s]








1 A rock or rock-like formation > 800




2 B very dense sands, gravel or very stiff clay 360-800




3 C deep deposits of dense or medium-dense sand, 180-360
gravel of stiff clay




4 D deposits of loose-to-medium cohesionless soil, < 180
or of soft-to-firm cohesive soil




5 E soil profile of a surface alluvium layer of C or D and n.a.
H = 5-20 m underlain by A









Table 2: Site classification according to Eurocode 8 (CEN, 2002).










CodeGround typeSite class descriptionShear-wave velocity vs,30 [m/s]








1 I rock or hard soil > 400




2 II medium soils 200-400




3 III soft soils < 200









Table 3: Site classification according to the Indian standard IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 [7].

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Note: In case that the polygons describing the geographical units with soil class information are already available in GIS file format, e.g. Shape-file .shp, an easy conversion of these file formats into the Google Earth kml-file format can be conducted including assigned information. A number of conversion tools are freely available on the web, such as Shp2KmlConverter.exe which can be downloaded from http://www.reimers.dk.______________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.4 Illustration of Input Files

To illustrate SELENA input and inventory files, the RISe-function Input illustrator can be utilized. It is strongly recommended to use the Input illustrator before the SELENA risk assessment computation is conducted in order to be able to graphically check the correctness and completeness of all input files. Especially the illustration of a color-shaded plot allows a quick check whether the entire study area is covered by polygons. Figure 10 shows the Input illustrator menu. By pointing to the respective file folder where the SELENA input files are located (button: Choose input file directory (SELENA), RISe automatically identifies those files suited for conversion into kml-files. The different types of input files are arranged into the different file cards. By discarding the single boxes behind the files, the user can determine which of the files should be converted and which should be disregarded. It should be considered that the total number of files suggested for conversion depends on the chosen analysis type and the defined number of logic tree branches in SELENA.


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(a) The General information file card.
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(b) The inventory file card.


Figure 10: The Input illustrator window in order to convert the SELENA input files into kml-files.

As mentioned earlier, the conversion of the kml-files is based on the files CentroidTract.kml and PolyTract.kml which need to be handed over to RISe. Further, the widths (in degrees) and heights (in meters) of the columns can be defined, which are used for the generation of the bar-chart plots. After the conversion process is started, RISe subsequently writes the generated kml-files into the folder which previously was defined by the user (button: Choose kml-file directory (RISe). Once the conversion process is finished, a message appears. Table 4 gives an overview of the different SELENA input files which are suited for conversion into kml-files and their illustration types, respectively.










File card Input file Mapping file Comment [unit]
(.txt) (.kml)








inventory
numbuild.txt numbuild.kml 1 color-shaded map for each model building type
[% of total number of buildings]



builtarea.txt builtarea.kml 1 color-shaded map for each model building type
[% of total building area]



population.txt population.kml 1 absolute bar chart map
[absolute no. of inhabitants]



earthquake.txt earthquake.kml 1 placemark for each defined earthquake epicenter




soilcenter
soilcenterk.txt soilcenterk.kml 1 color-shaded map for each soil model k
[soil class index acc. to the chosen soil categorization]




shakecenter
shakecenteri.txt shakecenteri.kml3 color-shaded maps for each shakemap i separate for
PGA, Sa (0.3 s) and Sa (1.0 s) [g-units]




realtimegridrealtimegridj.txtrealtimegridj.kml




ocupmbt
ocupmbtl.txt ocupmbtl.kml 1 color-shaded map for each occupancy type and
model building type l [% of total building area]




occupancy
occupancy.txt occupancy.kml 1 normalized bar chart map illustrating the
distribution of building floor area to the main
occupancy types RES, COM, IND, REL, GOV and
EDU irrespective of model building type
[% of total building area in the respective geounit]









Table 4: Overview of SELENA input files suited to be converted into kml-format

By double-clicking any of the generated kml-files, Google Earth automatically is opened and the respective area of interest is approached. (To illustrate any RISe-map onto the satellite image, the respective check boxes on the left Places-menu have to be activated. As it can be seen in Table 4, some generated kml-files contain multiple maps which should be illustrated separately from each other (e.g., builtarea.kml or shakecenteri.kml). Figure 11 illustrates how the input file soilcenter1.txt is plotted in Google Earth. In addition to the legends which are plotted on the bottom left corner, all information on the illustrated parameters such as distinct numbers (e.g., percentages of building area, soil class index, etc.) for the different geographical units are given on the Places-menu on the left.


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Figure 11: Illustration of the input file soilcenter1.txt as color-shaded map illustrating the distribution of EC 8 soil classes in a study area of Naples (Italy).

4.5 Illustration of Output Files

After successfully finished the SELENA risk computation, the SELENA output files can be converted into kml-files using the Output illustrator and illustrated in the same manner as the input files. Figure 12 shows two exemplary file cards of the Output illustrator. Again, the user has to point to the folder where the SELENA output files are stored (usually this is a subfolder named output which is automatically generated by SELENA). RISe will automatically identify those files suited for conversion into kml-files and by deactivating the boxes behind the files, the user can decide which of the files should not be automatically converted. The total number of files suggested for conversion depends on the defined number of logic tree branches in SELENA. Further, the files CentroidTract.kml and PolyTract.kml are necessary to start the conversion process. Further, the widths (in degrees) and heights (in meters) of the columns can be defined, which are used for the generation of the bar-chart plots. The conversion process of the output files may take considerably more time than for the input files since normally a larger number of files have to be converted. Table 5 gives an overview of the different SELENA output files which are suggested for conversion into kml-files and their possible illustration types.


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(a) The General information file card.
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(b) The ground motion file card.


Figure 12: The Output illustrator window in order to convert the SELENA output files into kml-files.










File card Output file Mapping file Comment
(.txt) (.kml)








ground motion
gmotionsceni.txt
gmotionsceni.kml
6 color-shaded maps (separate for PGA, Sa(0.3
sec) and Sa(1.0 sec) on rock and soil conditions)
for each logic tree branch i




damage
douti.txt
douti.kml
normalized bar chart maps separate for each
probabilities model building type for each logic tree branch i




building damage
medianct.txt
medianct.kml
absolute bar chart maps separate for each model
building type



16prctilect.txt
16prctilect.kml
absolute bar chart maps separate for each model
building type



84prctilect.txt
84prctilect.kml
absolute bar chart maps separate for each model
building type




economic losses
hlbyinjurmean.txt
loss.kml
absolute bar chart map (median ± 1σ)

hlbyinjur16pr.txt

hlbyinjur84pr.txt




casualties (cumulative)
totalinjurmean.txt
totalinjurs.kml
absolute bar chart maps (median ± 1σ) of

totalinjur16pr.txt cumulated casualty numbers separate for each

totalinjur84pr.txt daytime scenario (2 am, 10 am, 5 pm)









Table 5: Overview of SELENA output files suited to be converted into into the kml-format.

Figure 13 and Figure 13 exemplarily show both the normalized and absolute bar chart plots in order to illustrate damage probabilities and damaged building area in the 5 different damage states, respectively. This is done separately for each model building type defined which can be adjusted in the Google Earth Places window on the left margin.


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Figure 13: Illustration of damage probabilities (dout1.kml) for a single model building type in the five different damage states. Illustration type: relative bar char plot.


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Figure 14: Illustration of median damage (medianct.kml) for a single model building type in the five different damage states. Illustration type: absolute bar char plot.

4.6 Exporting the Maps

Once the SELENA results are plotted on top of the satellite images in Google Earth and zoomed or tilted to the right perspective, different possibilities exist to export the respective map:

  1. The easiest way is to use the Save Image tool as implemented in Google Earth and to save the map in the jpg graphic file format. Save Save Image as
  2. Another ways consists in simply using the screenshot key of any PC keyboard. More elaborate screenshot tools are available on the web, many of them provided as freeware.

5 Error Messages

IN the this section a number of problems are described which may occur when working with RISe. In case that other problems are experienced please contact the authors for further assistance.

RISe cannot be opened. Instead an error message appears (see Figure 15):
An updated version of the .NET Framework is missing. At least version 2.0 must be installed. Follow the steps which are described in chapter 3.1 of this manual and download the newest version of .NET Framework from the Windows webpage.
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Figure 15: .NET Framework initialization error.

Generation of the soilcenteri.txt, using
Preparing Input, gives the file CentroidTract.txt instead!
Simply rename the file into soilcenteri.txt.
Even though all geounits were provided with a soil type index, the index of the last geounits remains 0!
Repeat the procedure without leaving the cursor in the last field when pressing the button Save as soilcenteri.txt.
The Preparing input generates awkward looking coordinates without any decimal point or comma.
In most cases, this problem is connected to the regional settings of the PC. Check if the standards and formats of your PC are set to English (United States). This has to be done under Control Panel Regional and Language Options.
When generating input or output kml-files the the error message in Figure 16 appears.
Irrespective of this error message, RISe is working properly after clicking the Continue button.
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Figure 16: .NET unhandled exception error message.

When generating input or output kml-files the error message in Figure 17 appears.
This refers to the format of one or more input files (.txt). Please check your (georeferenced) input files in a text editor with regard to blank lines inbetween or at the end of the file. The following example would lead to the above error message due to the two blank lines at the end of the file:
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Figure 17: File not found error.

The input file occupancy.kml is not generated or contains no information!
This probably is caused by the order or definition of occupancy classes. Please make sure that the occupancy classes defined in the SELENA input files headerocc.txt and ocupmbti.txt are according to the following order:
  RES COM IND REL GOV EDU

This six classes represent the main occupancy classes. Many subclasses within one main class can be defined, e.g.:

  RES1 RES2 RES3 COM1 COM4 IND1 IND2 REL

Please consider that only the principal order of the six classes has to remain. Single classes can be excluded, e.g.:

  RES1 RES2 RES3 IND1 IND2 REL GOV1 GOV2

The color-shaded maps look awkward and (some) units are not continuously filled with color!
(Figure 18) When demarcating the single geographical units by using the Add Polygon tool in Google Earth, it was forgotten to increase the altitude of the polygon to a certain positive value relative to ground, e.g. 10 m. Here, the Share Style option can be used in order to adjust the properties of all polygons which are included in file PolyTract.kml. After checking and correcting the respective geographical units, the file PolyTract.kml has to be updated (Save) and the generation of kml-files repeated.
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Figure 18: An example of a not continuously filled color-shaded map.

Acknowledgments

THIS work has been developed through a long-term partnership between NORSAR (Kjeller, Norway) and INETER (Managua, Nicaragua). Funding has been provided by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) [8].

References

[1]    S. Molina and C.D. Lindholm. A logic tree extension of the capacity spectrum method developed to estimate seismic risk in oslo, norway. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 9(6):877–897, 2005.

[2]    D.H. Lang, S. Molina, and C.D. Lindholm. Towards near-real-time damage estimation using a csm-based tool for seismic risk assessment. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 12, 2008. Special Issue 2.

[3]    S.A. Freeman, J.P. Nicoletti, and J.V Tyrell. Evaluations of existing buildings for seismic risk — a case study of puget sound naval shipyar. In 1st National Conf. Earthquake Engng., EERI, Berkeley, pages 113–122, 1975.

[4]    S.A. Freeman. Development and use of capacity spectrum method. In Proc. 6th National Conf. Earthquake Engng., Seattle, EERI, Oakland, 1998.

[5]    Nehrp recommended provisions for seismic regulations for new buildings. Technical report, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington DC, 1997. FEMA 222A.

[6]    2006 international building code (ibc-2006). Technical report, International Code Council, United States, January .

[7]    Indian standard—criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures, part 1—general provisions and buildings. Technical report, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), 2002. ICS 91.120.25.

[8]    http://www.geohazards.no/.

A Compiling the C# Code

THIS section describes how to build RISe from the C# source code and which tools that are needed for the different platforms. First download the source code for RISe. The source code can be found in the download section on the SELENA/RISe web page at: http://selena.sourceforge.net

If you want to compile the development code from the SVN repository you first need to install a subversion (svn) client. On windows one can, for example, use TortoiseSVN which integrates into the Windows file browser. On Linux there exist several GUI based front ends to svn like, for example, KDESvn, RapidSVN or eSvn. One can also use the command line client. To download the development code one need to do a svn checkout. First create a folder for the RISe code, say rise_sourceforge and go to that folder. Then, using the command line client, type

$ svn checkout https://selena.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/selena/rise/trunk

at the shell command line. This will download all the C# source code, user manual files etc. If you are using a GUI client then choose the checkout menu/button in the particular GUI client that you are using. For example, if you are using TortoiseSVN on Windows then right-click on the rise_sourceforge folder that you just created, select the SVN Checkout menu item, and add the path

https://selena.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/selena/rise/trunk

in the URL or Repository line. Then click on the OK-button and the files should start downloading. The C# source code can be found in the trunk/src folder.

A.1 Tools and Libraries for Windows

To build RISe on Windows install the MS Visual Studio C# (Express or Profession) 2008 (or higher) version.1

A.2 Building on Windows

Start the MS Visual studio and open the RISe.csproj project file. Then press the run button and RISe should compile. You can find the RISe.exe-file in the trunk/src/bin/Debug, or trunk/src/bin/Release, folder.

A.3 Tools and Libraries for Linux/Unix

To build RISe on POSIX systems you need to install the cross platform, open source .NET C# framework mono, which can be found here: http://www.mono-project.com. Normally there is a package for mono (at least for the most common Linux distributions) so you should be able to install mono using your distribution’s package manager. On, for example Gentoo, one can install mono by:

$ emerge mono

You also need to have the standard make/gcc development tools installed (cf. the package manager tool for the particular Linux distribution that you are using).

A.4 Building on Linux/Unix (POSIX) systems

To build mono on a Linux/Unix system there is a Makefile to facilitate the building process. Go to the trunk/src folder and type make which will build the RISe.exe-file. RISe is the run by:

$ mono RISe.exe

Another option is to use monodevlop (http://monodevelop.com) which recognizes the MSVC# *.sln project files and also includes a source code debugger.